Farming and Farms

Author: David Vanderstel

Much of the history of the American nation revolves around man's lust for land, the acquisition of unconquered territories, and the eventual harnessing of its productive capabilities. Perhaps as important as this desire for land was the American attitude toward that land. It was not a scarce resource to be guarded and nurtured for the future. Land was promiscuous in its abundance; even Thomas Jefferson envisioned sufficient land for thousands of generations to come. Consequently, Americans treated land as a "free gift" to be exploited as fully and as quickly as possible; conservation and love of the soil was not a characteristic of the early generations of Indiana settlers. Nevertheless, these settlers harnessed the productivity of their soil and established a strong agricultural economy, based upon grains and livestock, which sustained the state of Indiana from its formative years well into the twentieth century.

Observations on Land and its Agricultural Potential

Foreign and domestic travelers who were touring the United States and recording their observations of the nation and its people usually made specific remarks about the great agricultural potential of the American land. These accounts, which were eventually published, not only served to document the conditions in the United States but also enticed people to immigrate to the west in order to capitalize on the promises locked within the land.

David Baillie Warden, a French-Irish author, published a survey of the United States in 1819 in which he noted the following about Indiana:

The common depth of the soil is from two to three feet; but along the Wabash, in forming wells, it was found to be 22 feet, and underneath a stratum of fine white sand was discovered....The state is watered by the rivers Ohio and Wabash, and their numerous branches...The soil is well adapted to maize, wheat, oats, rye, hemp, and tobacco. On the best lands the average produce of Indian corn is said to be from fifty to sixty bushels per acre; that of wheat about fifty, the bushel weighing fifty-eight pounds. In many places, the land is too rich for this grain, which, though it does not become smutty, is not so good as in the state of New York...The country is admirably fitted for rearing cattle and swine, having great abundance of acorns and roots on which they feed.

(Lindley, Indiana as Seen by Early Travelers, pp. 216-218,230)

In that same year, Edmund Dana, often employed as a guide for immigrants to the west, noted the quality of soil in Indiana:

Instead, it has been esteemed by intelligent men, who have often traversed it, in all directions, in point of rural scenery, a copious supply of pure water, fertility of soil and security to health, equal to any part of the western country...The surface in this part of the tract is delightfully variegated by gentle undulations...The production of Indiana in corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, beans, peas, Irish, sweet potatoes, and garden vegetables of every description, are abundant.(Lindley, pp.199-200)

Establishing a Farm

A variety of factors affected one's selection of a farm site: fertility of soil, proximity to water sources, good drainage, the presence of vegetation and timber, and proximity to other people, among others. In the earliest years, land could be obtained simply by "squatting" on it and staking one's claim; to ensure rightful ownership, the prospective owner needed to register the land at a government land office. In later years, after all the land had been purchased, individuals could secure sections of farm land from speculators or private parties who were selling off all or part of their own holdings.

After constructing a basic shelter for his family, the farmer began to clear trees from his land in order to plant crops, though this process could continue for years until all the tillable soil had been cleared. Much of the clearing began in summer with the girdling and deadening of trees (stripping off the bark to accelerate death of the tree; this was followed by clearing underbrush and then often by burning the fields and deadened trees. An initial clearing could range from three to ten acres. Once this was accomplished, the farmer could plow and plant his first crop, all with the hopes for an early harvest to supplement the meager supplies brought on the move west.

Given time to develop his land, the farmer proceeded to improve and/or expand his shelters. The home was usually a log house, possibly the first cabin enlarged. Dirt floors eventually gave way to sawn boards; walls might be plastered but more likely whitewashed. A rough barn served as shelter for some livestock and storage for grain. Some of the pastures and garden areas could be under fence -- worm fence or post- and-rail for the more ambitious. As a whole, the farm "complex" was rather sparse and under-developed. Material comforts were rudimentary, essential equipment scarce and often inadequate. However, the farmer had taken the important initial steps toward developing his farm and its crop and thereby turning his property into a viable contributor to the emerging economy of the region and the state.

Farmers had a variety of experiences in the course of establishing their farms in western lands. Englishman Matthew Foster of Pike County corresponded with his brother back home regarding the success which he had encountered in America. On July 18, 1823, Foster wrote:

When we came here [1817] there was not a tree cut down. Now we have ten acres in corn (maize) five acres in wheat, 5 acres in oats, two acres in grass. We have got a house, barn, stables, and cattle sheds, but they are all built of logs...We have 13 cattle, nearly a hundred hogs. The hogs and cows get fat in the woods, never feed them only in winter. We have two excellent horses and a wagon and other farming utensils. (Indiana Historical Society manuscript)

Interestingly, Foster only enumerated his successes and failed to provide an account of his first plantings among the tree trunks and roots that more than likely filled his fields. Among the hundreds of "yeoman farmers" who cleared land, built shelters, and invested their savings, there were those who endured great hardships. Writing in the 1830s, Anna Beerman reported to her sister about the miseries, the failures, and the pessimism that affected her own family in Pike Creek, Madison County, Indiana:

[27 May 1832] Our ground for corn is grown with weeds and grass knee high and we cannot get it plowed because we have not money to pay for it...Corn that was raised last season will not grow for seed corn...The wheat last season was very poor and about harvest there comes much rain that much of it was lost...The cut worms are cutting up our flax. We have not been able to get any sheep and they do not do well...Cattle die here very bad with much rain...We have at last got our corn planted and it comes up well, but pigeons, crows, moles, and cut worms are trying to destroy all.

To ensure continued success in the western lands, Indiana's premier agriculturalist Solon Robinson urged farmers with large tracts of land in Indiana "to procure some honest, industrious poor man with a family, build him a house, and fence his land, if prairie, or if timbered, "make a deadening," and stock it with cattle, and as fast as they tramped the soil, sow it with cultivate grasses. The growth of his stock would soon pay for the improvement on the land, and that improvement would double its value, and make it more salable, because it would be in a state ready for the work of the emigrant upon his coming into the country" (Kellar, Solon Robinson, 1:263).

The early settlers of central Indiana were an agricultural people. Among the 1840 Hamilton County household population, 92% reported at least one adult employed in farming; in many instances, individuals were involved in both farming and manufacturing or a trade. The average farm in Hamilton County in the 1830s probably consisted of some eighty acres, one-quarter or more of which was cleared and under cultivation with mostly corn, some wheat, and other assorted crops.


As many travelers through Indiana noted in their journals and accounts, the state's land was fertile and highly conducive to great agricultural productivity. Naturally, some locations were better than others for raising certain crops, not only to provide for the family's diet, but also to contribute to the growing agricultural market of the state.

The Indiana Gazetteer of 1849 declared that "corn is the great staple of the state" (p.39). From the beginning of settlement in Indiana, Corn was a primary crop, easily grown throughout the state and providing food for both man and livestock. After plowing and harrowing his fields, the farmer planted seed kernels, possibly selecting those that would produce at least two good ears per stalk. Because one grain of seed could produce hundreds of grains for food, only two bushels of seed were needed to support a large family for a year; an acre of land could be planted with ten pounds of seed (C. Wallace, "early Indiana Agriculture,"p.17). Once the corn had reached a height of 2-6 inches, careful harrowing and hoeing was done. A field could yield nearly fifty bushels of corn per acre, if the farmer was willing to put in "a good many long hard days in his field, unaided by intricate, self-propelled machinery" (H. Waltman, "Pioneer Farming,"p.20). Yields were often lower, however, until the new ground could be thoroughly broken; in fact, Solon Robinson reported a harvest of roughly twenty bushels per acre in the first or "sod crop" on the Indiana prairie in 1835 (Kellar,Solon Robinson,1:58).

Hamilton County ranked tenth among Indiana counties in 1839 in potato production with 31,255 bushels (2 percent of the state total). Most western farmers probably grew potatoes for home consumption, for the small local market, and for the purpose of fattening hogs. It is estimated that Indiana families consumed between twenty and thirty bushels of potatoes per year.

Two other crops kept Hamilton County in the top rankings of agricultural production in the state. Maple sugar production for 1839 amounted to 139,353 pounds, which was fifth in the state. The county also produced 1,240 tons of "flax and hemp, second only to St. Joseph's County, with flax constituting the greatest bulk of that amount Flax patches, usually planted in March and consisting of one-quarter acre, produced an average yield of three to four bushels per patch. While flax was often prepared, spun, and woven on the farm, the commercial value of flax came from its seed, which was sold to local mills where it was pressed into an oil for lubrication. Scudder and Hannaman of Indianapolis advertised in the 1836 Indiana Democrat, calling for thousands of bushels of flax seed to be delivered to their oil mill or drug store for which the highest price (75 cents per bushel) would be paid.

Another important crop was hay. Indiana produced 178,029 tons of hay in 1839, with Hamilton County contributing 3,836 Tons (2%). Although the typical Indiana farmer may not have valued his hay as much as corn or wheat, the hay was a vital source of food for the livestock. The best land on the farm was usually reserved for the primary crops, while hay was grown on poorer soil, hillsides, and poorly drained ground (P.Gates, The Farmer's Age, pp.249-251). Though somewhat exaggerated, Henry Ellsworth projected a hay yield of two tons per acre, especially since "no finer grass can be found than that along the borders of the Wabash" (Valley of the Upper Wabash, p.65). The Freeman's Almanack, published in Cincinnati in 1823, recommended that farmers "take great care in making hay to prevent it, if possible, from being wet; and as soon as it is properly dried...put it in the barn, where it is kept sweet and fragrant as young tea."

Prior to the construction of railroads in Indiana, surplus produce (wheat, corn, oats) were hauled by wagon to Madison, Lawrenceburg, Cincinnati, and Louisville on the Ohio River. Other areas, connected by small rivers, had their surpluses sent out by flatboats to New Orleans and other river markets. While settlements along waterways had access to flatboating most of the year, other areas relied upon the emergence of local mills and distilleries to process the grain for local demand.


Animals on Indiana's farms were very common, though they were not "improved" or purebreds. In the earliest years, animals were used for the basic subsistence of the farm family. However, with the passage of time and the growth of a market economy, an ever-growing number of farmers raised animals for market.

Hogs were the primary animal owned by Indiana farmers. While the state ranked seventh in the nation in total swine production in 1839 (1.6 million hogs), Indiana ranked second only to Illinois in the number of hogs per capita (2.3 hogs per person); by 1849, Indiana led the nation in hogs per person. During the year 1839, Hamilton County recorded 28,930 hogs (1.7 % of the state total). Of the 1,570 Hamilton County households listed in the 1840 census, 1,327 were involved in agriculture. The average number of hogs per farm household was 21.8, clearly more than the average family could consume in a year. By 1849, Hamilton County exported 10,000 hogs annually (Indiana Gazetteer, p.242)

Raising hogs did not require great expense of energy. Farming and Farms - HogsO.H.Smith of Washington, Indiana, described how he raised his hogs in 1838, noting the close relationship between hogs and corn:

I have had in cultivation in corn, for several years past, 160 acres of river bottom lands. The most of these lands have been in cultivation in corn about fifteen years, without intermission and without manure. (When corn was ripe) I purchase of those who raise them, the stock required to eat off my corn; say about three and half hogs to the acre, which is about the proper number to eat an acre of corn in thirteen weeks, the usual time allowed to make our pork from ordinary stock hogs...At the proper season, I turn my hogs into a field, and after it is eaten off clean, I pass them into another, and so on, until I have fed off my crop, when my hogs are ready for market.

(Ellsworth, Upper Wabash,pp.39-40)

Smith indicated that he never manured his fields, although his lands continued to increase in value. He believed that the rotting corn stalks and husks provided the necessary fertilizer; he obviously neglected the fact that the hogs' manure also contributed to the value of the soil. Jesse Buel, a publicist of improved agricultural methods in the 1830s, claimed that hogs were "excellent animals for manufacturing manure." The slops of the kitchen, the weeds of the garden, the refuse fruits of the orchard, and the offal of the farm, are readily converted by these swinish laborers, into meat or manure" (Farmer's Companion, 1847). Nevertheless, Indiana farmers apparently failed to raise their hogs properly, Solon Robinson noted an incident involving Logansport farmers who sent "a lot of Berkshire pigs" to Chicago. "Several of them either starved or froze to death, and those that came to hand have not done credit to the breed...At all event, it was a very unlucky piece of business for all parties concerned, and has tended to put back the improvement of hogs here for several years." Robinson concluded, "Such conduct is highly criminal, and I mention it here publicly...Hogs are the first and most easy stock to improve, and I think the most important, particularly in this great corn country" (Kellar, Solon Robinson, 1:242-243).

There were 8,928 head of cattle in the county in 1839, with an average of 6.7 head per farmstead. In the early years, few cattle were kept for purposes other than for dairy production; by the 1830s, farmers began to raise cattle to meet the growing market demand for beef. Despite the absence of good transportation and the location of distant markets, Hamilton County exported 500 head of cattle in 1849. Shorthorn cattle of pure breeds were introduced in the 1820s in southern Indiana, but the first public exhibit of this breed was supposedly made at the Marion County Fair, held at the Governor's Circle in Indianapolis in 1835 (Conner, Agricultural Resources, p.16). In the subsequent ten years, more pure breeds were introduced.

Farmers often castrated their bull calves and trained them for field work. Stronger than horses in terms of pulling strength, oxen were also more resistant to disease and consumed less grain, at least according to some farmers. During the 1830s, a debate raged regarding the merits of oxen and horses in agriculture. Some farmers believed that oxen were unfit for "modern husbandry" because they were too slow. An opponent argued that "so decided is the preference for the (ox) that I do not believe a single farmer can be found in this extensive agricultural country {Pennsylvania} who performs his labor by horses without oxen; while there are hundreds...who make no other use of horses in husbandry than to furrow for planting, and plow among their corn for hoeing" (The (Noblesville) Newspaper, 7 December 1837, quoting an article in the Practical Farmer). Calvin Fletcher was perplexed at paying $32 for a pair of oxen in 1838, however he was willing to pay $60 in 1841 after he learned the value of having oxen to save his horses (Diary of Calvin Fletcher, 2 : 29, 359).

According to the census, there were 3,498 "horses and mules in Hamilton County in 1839, or 2.6 per farmstead. Farmers kept horses for transportation needs and to perform plowing and pulling chores around the farm. Farming and Farms : ForkAs roads improved, more people operated buggies and light wagons, thereby increasing the market for horses. Horses became the more accepted work animal in the west since they were more productive for the growing commercial economy; furthermore, horses epitomized "newness," speed, and modernity.

Solomon Finch brought sheep with him when he settled Horseshoe Prairie in Hamilton County in 1819. By 1839, the county's farmers owned 6,924 sheep, or roughly 5.2 per farmstead. Most farmers raised sheep primarily for the wool which could be used in making clothes. By the mid 1840s, the Indiana Farmer, published by the State Board of Agriculture, predicted a great potential for raising sheep in central Indiana, but bemoaned the reluctance of Hoosier farmers to give the sheep the "constant attention" required. Solon Robinson, however, claimed sheep raised on the rich lands of Indiana's prairies were "always fat," comfortably being maintained on a diet of rye, oats, grass, and occasional turnips (Kellar, S. Robinson, 1: 328-329).

Poultry was obviously important for the local market as store ledgers provide listings of chickens, ducks, turkeys, eggs, and feathers changing hands for cash or credit. The 1839 census of agricultural production listed "poultry of all kinds" for Hamilton County. It did not provide an exact count of the poultry population, nor the types and breeds kept by farmers. Rather, it listed the estimated value of the poultry, which amounted to $4,788, or 1% of the state's total value of poultry.

Farm Implements

Tools and implements used on Indiana farms were fairly simple. Early implements were often hand-made by the local carpenter, smith, or the farmer himself. However, by the 1830s, mass-produced tools and implements were becoming readily available through local stores and dealers.

Plows were probably the most important implement for the farmer to succeed in the western lands. A variety were available to local farmers, each designed for different functions and steps in the cultivation process. Perhaps the most primitive type was the "bull plow," a large wooden mold-board plow with an iron share, intended to break the hard soil; this implement was the second most common plow in Hamilton County during the 1830s and remained fairly common well into 1840s (Conner, Agricultural Resources, pp. 3-4). The "Carey" plow was probably the most "modern" plow found in Hamilton County. It combined a coulter with a share, which allowed a deeper, cleaner cut into the soil and also made for a stronger plow. The shovel plow was also very popular in the county. It had a simple triangular share, shaped like a shovel, possibly made of cast iron by the 1830s, and was used for lighter, finer plowing in gardens and previously-broken fields.

During the 1830s, the early crude plows were supplanted by "patent plows," imported from the East by local stores. Some had replaceable parts, cast mold-boards, or metal points. Realizing the significant changes occurring in agriculture, Indiana manufacturers soon joined in the production of advanced farm implements. The foundry of Robert Underhill and John Wood, located at Pennsylvania and Vermont streets in Indianapolis, was producing plow points in 1835. In nearby Westfield, a community in Hamilton County, cast mold-board plows were being manufactured as early as 1836 (Shirts, Primitive History of Hamilton County, p.205).

Animal-drawn harrows were commonly used to stir, pulverize, level, and weed the soil. The typical harrow was a triangular frame covering four to six feet of ground with iron or wood teeth set to project 6 to 7 inches. The earliest harrows were supplemented by shovel plows and hoes. However, improvements were forth coming with this implement. On 2 February 1836, Charles Cathcart advertised in the Indiana Democrat that he had purchased "the patent right of S.D.Woodsides Revolving Harrow, for the State of Indiana and Illinois." The implement "never clogs, neither does it drag a mass of matter before it, as the common harrow does...and it will put the ground in better order...than the common harrow can in six operations." It is not known, however, if or when this new harrow was ever made available to or used by local farmers.

Hand work seemed to be the rule on the western farm. Farms, measured in acres, were worked with hoes, scythes, cradles, rakes, shovels, flails, and assorted wagons, all of which were common among Indiana farm inventories of the 1830s.

Major improvements in farm equipment were introduced in the mid to late 1830s. The first patent for a grain drill was granted in 1841, and the first combine was developed in Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1836 (Schlebecker, Whereby We Thrive, pp. 107, 116). Obed Hussey patented his mechanical reaper in 1834, but had sold only forty-five machines by 1840. Cyrus McCormick's reaper, patented in 1834, went on sale in 1840 (Rogin, Introduction of Farm Machinery,pp. 73-76). John Deere introduced his steel plow in 1837, which allegedly boosted plowing capabilities tenfold. By the mid 1830s, Indiana newspapers also advertised mechanical cornshellers, rotary harrows, and threshing machines. None of these advanced implements, however, appeared in Hamilton County probate inventories of the period, leading one to believe that central Indiana farmers were not in the fore-front of agricultural innovators.

Agricultural Reform

During the 1830s, American agricultural practices were affected by the growing "reform" movement. New Scientific" agriculturalists advocated the testing and use of fertilizers, the introduction of improved pure-bred animals and plants, the use of labor-saving machines, and a generally progressive and experimental type of farming. The gospel of agricultural reform was spread through periodicals, such as The American Farmer, the Farmer's Register, the New England Farmer, the Albany Cultivator, the Southern Agriculturalist, and the Indiana Farmer. These journals contained articles on breeds and soil preparation, letters of inquiry from readers, and advertisements for horse-powered threshers, patent plows, and assorted hand tools. Thus, the readers of such materials would have been exposed to a tremendous amount of innovative thinking.

Few Indiana farmers were interested in agricultural progress since the vast majority held to equipment and techniques that were sanctioned by tradition. Calvin Fletcher commented on that point in a diary entry of 21 July 1835:

Our farmers are too lazy to keep pasture or rather too ignorant of their use and value. The first farmers who settled this country were backwoodsmen and their influence and example in slovenly farming is yet visible altho a new set to some extent... (Diary of Calvin Fletcher, 2: 14)

Indiana took a major step toward the improvement of agriculture. According to laws enacted by the General Assembly in 1829, the government encouraged the organization of county agricultural societies for the "advancement in agriculture" by awarding premiums for essays on agricultural subjects and for exhibits of farm, domestic, and mechanical products. Farming and Farms - ForkWhile each society could receive donations of land for their work (not to exceed $500), no public funds were provided. Hamilton County moved to form a society in 1831, but there is no record of meetings or activities until 1855.

Solon Robinson noted that there was a "great defect in agricultural knowledge in this part of the world, or we should find more attention paid to the cultivation of grass and stock...It is painful to learn that the agricultural society at the seat of government of such a state of Indiana, after struggling through a brief existence now sleeps too sound to be awakened by the ordinary cries of a community suffering for the want of a better system of agricultural education" (Kellar, S.Robinson, 1: 244). It was this naivete of Hoosier farmers that inspired Robinson to propose in 1838 an "American Society of Agriculture, the leading principle of which shall be to elevate the character and standing of the cultivators of the American soil; and whose members shall be pledged to be the production of domestic industry and particularly the growth of American wool and silk, by wearing manufactures of such; and the promotion of agricultural schools, and the establishment and gratuitous circulation of agricultural papers" (Kellar, S.Robinson, 1: 88).

Henry L. Ellsworth, an investor in Wabash River lands, also recognized the need for agricultural improvements. He wrote in 1837:

For commerce and manufactures, much has been done; for agriculture...much remains to be done. Husbandry seems to be viewed as a natural blessing, that needs no aid from legislation. Like the air we breathe, and the element of water, which sustain life, the productions of the soil are regarded by too many as common bounties of Providence, to be gratefully enjoyed, but without further thought or reflection. (Buley,The Old Northwest, 1:195)

Grain production experienced a marked increase after agriculture began to organize in the 1840s. County agricultural societies brought the "scientific" methods to the farmers and taught them how to improve methods of soil culture and animal breeding. However, old habits and traditions in agriculture were hard to overcome. One obviously progressive-minded Illinois farmer reported that he had interviewed hundreds of farmers and lent copies of the Ohio Farmer, but had not succeeded in winning any subscribers.

"Unfortunately, I find a large portion of our farmers prejudiced against every variety of improvement, particularly where the knowledge of that improvement is to be acquired from books" (cited in Western Farmer of Cincinnati, 1835, quoted in Buley, 1: 198). Editors of other publications attempted to convince the common farmer to accept the recommendations for improved farming methods. However, it would be another generation for the average Hoosier farmer generally to begin to respect the "scientific" approach advocated through the printed page.


Why was it difficult to establish a more stable system of agriculture in the early years of settlement? First, much more could be attributed to the American attitude toward the land -- that Americans generally believed there was an abundance of land for generations and that natural resources were inexhaustible. This was clearly evident in the farmer's initial failure to use fertilizers, crop rotation, and other soil-saving methods, thereby perpetuating an image of a self-renewing resource. Second, Solon Robinson noted a great "disposition to change" among the population:There is no certainty if a man makes improvements this year, that he will enjoy them next; for the fashion of "selling out," and making a new location, is so strong, that no one can resist it; so that it may be said that nearly the whole of the western population are afloat, with sails unfurled and anchors tripped, and ready to be off with the first favorable breeze that blows. (Kellar, S.Robinson, 1:384-385)

Thus, it appeared that settlers were constantly looking further west for new investments and new lands to sow.

Farming in Indiana was essentially commercial from the very beginning. Thus, the perception of western farmers as completely self- sufficient is a myth. The earliest settlers experienced a degree of self-sufficiency, getting by with what they produced, though this stage was only temporary. After all, the primary purpose for opening western regions to settlement was the ready production of cash crops for the market. Hence, our farmers ranked as capitalist producers from the first ax blow and the first bite of the plow. Farm produce was the staple export of the individual farm; it contributed to the sustenance of the local community and to the development of a local and regional economy. The early diversity of crops eventually gave way to a single cash crop, and slowly both the individual farm and the village developed stronger economic and social ties to each other and to the rest of the region. Thus, agriculture in early nineteenth century Indiana was at a watershed in the course of the nation's agricultural development. While Hoosier farmers were indebted to the "tried and tested" traditional practices, they stood at the brink of technological and scientific breakthroughs which, when adopted, would surely contribute toward the emergence of a strong agriculturally-oriented economy for future generations. DGV 8/85

Recommended Readings

Bidwell, Percy Wells and Falconer, John I. History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620-1860. New York: Peter Smith, 1941.

Bogue, Allan G. From Prairie to Corn Belt: Farming on the Illinois and Iowa Prairies in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period, 1815-1840. 2 vols. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1950.

Conner, John B. Agricultural Resources and Development of the State: The Struggles of Pioneer Life Compared with Present Conditions. Indianapolis: W.B. Buford, Printer and Binder, 1893.

Danhof, Clarence H. Change in Agriculture: The Northern United States, 1820-1870. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.

Ellsworth, William Henry. Valley of the Upper Wabash, Indiana... New York: Pratt, Robinson, and Co., 1838.